Kei Tua o te Pae

Kei Tua o te Pae/Assessment for Learning: Early Childhood Exemplars is a best-practice guide that will help teachers continue to improve the quality of their teaching.

The exemplars are a series of books that will help teachers to understand and strengthen children's learning. It also shows how children, parents and whānau can contribute to this assessment and ongoing learning.

We are making improvements to our Download-to-Print functionality, so if you want a printed copy there are PDF versions available at the bottom of the main cover page.

Endnotes – Kōrero tāpiri

Mason Durie (2001). “A Framework for Considering Māori Educational Advancement”. Opening address to the Hui Taumata Mātauranga, Turangi/Taupo, 24 February, page 5.

2 Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam (1998). Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment. London: School of Education, King’s College, p. 13. (See also Book 10).

"A great deal of concern has been expressed about the need to respond further to the behaviour and emotional problems of young children growing up in disadvantaged areas. Some longitudinal studies have shown us that children provided with predominantly direct or ‘programmed’ instruction sometimes do better academically than those provided with other forms of pedagogy in the short term … But the studies also suggest that, when apparent, these gains are short-lived, with all significant differences having ‘washed out’ within a year of the provision ending. Highly structured, didactic teaching has also been found to result in young children showing significantly increased stress/anxiety behaviour."

Iram Siraj-Blatchford and Kathy Sylva (2004).

“Researching Pedagogy in English Pre-Schools”. British Educational Research Journal, vol. 30 no. 5, October, p. 725.

3 The idea of an “appreciative inquiry” comes from a research project where inquiry proceeds from a positive approach: it “entails looking for what is done well, and finding ways to share strengths with others and develop them further” (Janet Holmes, 2000). Victoria University of Wellington’s Language in the Workplace Project: An Overview. Language in the Workplace Occasional Papers, no. 1 (November), p. 11.

4 Ministry of Education (1996). Te Whāriki: He Whāriki Mātauranga mō ngā Mokopuna o Aotearoa/Early Childhood Curriculum. Wellington: Learning Media, page 46.

5 ibid., page 35.

6 L. S. Vygotsky (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, p. 102.

7 Summarising another research project on the optimal conditions for learning, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi stated that “I developed a theory of optimal experience based on the concept of flow – the state in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter; the experience itself is so enjoyable that people will do it even at great cost, for the sheer sake of doing it.” Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (1991). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: HarperCollins, p. 4.

8 Mason Durie (2003). Ngā Kāhui Pou: Launching Māori Futures. Wellington: Huia Publishers.

9 Kayoko Inagaki (1992). “Piagetian and Post-Piagetian Conceptions of Development and Their Implications for Science Education in Early Childhood”. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, vol. 7 no. 1, p. 128.

10 Vivian Paley wrote eloquently about the role of children’s storytelling and the value of encouraging them to revisit those stories. See Vivian Gussin Paley (1988). Bad Guys Don’t Have Birthdays: Fantasy Play at Four. Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press.

11 Siraj-Blatchford and Sylva (2004), op. cit., p. 725.