Kei Tua o te Pae

Kei Tua o te Pae/Assessment for Learning: Early Childhood Exemplars is a best-practice guide that will help teachers continue to improve the quality of their teaching.

The exemplars are a series of books that will help teachers to understand and strengthen children's learning. It also shows how children, parents and whānau can contribute to this assessment and ongoing learning.

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Endnotes – Kōrero tāpiri

1 Étienne Wenger (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 160. Wenger describes this bridging process as one of “reconciliation”, which he explains is about “finding ways to make our various forms of membership coexist”.

2 Early Childhood Learning and Assessment Exemplar Project Advisory Committee and Co-ordinators, 2002.

3 See Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam (1998). “Assessment and Classroom Learning”. Assessment in Education, vol. 5 no. 1, p. 31. See also Book 10.

4 Bronwen Cowie and Margaret Carr write about the way in which assessments can act as a “conscription device” (a recruitment) into the early childhood community. See B. Cowie and M. Carr (2004). “The Consequences of Socio-cultural Assessment”, in Early Childhood Education: Society and Culture, ed. Angela Anning, Joy Cullen, and Marilyn Fleer. London: Sage, pp. 95–106.

5 N. González, L. Moll, and C. Amanti (2005). Funds of Knowledge: Theorizing Practices in Households, Communities, and Classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

6 Ministry of Education (1996). Te Whāriki: He Whāriki Mātauranga mō ngā Mokopuna o Aotearoa/ Early Childhood Curriculum. Wellington: Learning Media, p. 36.

7 ibid., p. 54.

8 See Hazel Marcus and Paula Nurius (1986), “Possible Selves”, American Psychologist, vol. 41 no. 9, pp. 954–969. Ann Haas Dyson has argued that being eager to read includes the learner “seeing themselves as a reader”. She has also described how the process of being a writer is embedded in their social lives and their “feeling of belonging” to a community. (See Ann Haas Dyson, 1989. Multiple Worlds of Child Writers: Friends Learning to Write. New York: Teachers College Press, p. xvii).

9 Russell Bishop and Ted Glynn recommended developing learning and teaching relationships in which “culture counts – classrooms are places where learners can bring ‘who they are’ to the learning interactions in complete safety, and where their knowledges are ‘acceptable’ and ‘legitimate’”. (Russell Bishop and Ted Glynn, 2000. “Kaupapa Māori Messages for the Mainstream”. SET: Research Information for Teachers, no. 1, p. 5).

10 Mason Durie (2003). Māori Educational Advancement at the Interface between Te Ao Māori and Te Ao Whānui. Paper presented at the Hui Taumata Mātauranga Tuatoru, Tūrangi/Taupō, 7–9 March, p. 5. On p. 4, Durie comments that identity means little if it only depends on an abstract sense of belonging without actually sharing cultural, social, and economic resources.

11 See Norma González, Luis Moll, and Cathy Amanti (2005). Funds of Knowledge: Theorizing Practices in Households, Communities, and Classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, p. 398. See also the argument for constructive partnerships with community and family in Fred Biddulph, Jeanne Biddulph, and Chris Biddulph (2003), The Complexity of Community and Family Influences on Children’s Achievement in New Zealand: Best Evidence Synthesis. Wellington: Ministry of Education.

12 Andreas Krapp and Benedykt Fink (1992). “The Development and Function of Interests during the Critical Transition from Home to Preschool”. In The Role of Interest in Learning and Development, ed. K. Ann Renninger, Suzanne Hidi, and Andreas Krapp. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, p. 398.

13 The notion of a community being a “figured world” is a useful one. It is an idea developed by Dorothy Holland et al. (1998), who explain it as “a socially and culturally constructed realm of interpretation in which particular characters and actors are recognized, significance is assigned to certain acts, and particular outcomes are valued over others” (Dorothy Holland, William Jr Lachicotte, Debra Skinner, and Carole Cain, 1998. Identity and Agency in Cultural Worlds. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, p. 52).

14 Jon Douglas Willms (2001). Student Engagement at School: A Sense of Belonging and Participation. Results from PISA 2000. Paris: OECD. In the report, Willms concludes that a sense of belonging and participation are two important aspects of student engagement not only because of their relationship with student learning but also because they represent a disposition towards schooling and lifelong learning.

15 The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) clarified this idea: “State Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child” (p. 5). Retrieved 8 August 2006 from the Internet at link)