Kei Tua o te Pae

Kei Tua o te Pae/Assessment for Learning: Early Childhood Exemplars is a best-practice guide that will help teachers continue to improve the quality of their teaching.

The exemplars are a series of books that will help teachers to understand and strengthen children's learning. It also shows how children, parents and whānau can contribute to this assessment and ongoing learning.

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Endnotes – Kōrero tāpiri

1 Ministry of Education (1996). Te Whāriki: He Whāriki Mātauranga mō ngā Mokopuna o Aotearoa/ Early Childhood Curriculum. Wellington: Learning Media.

2 Tilly Reedy (1995/2003). “Toku Rangatiratanga na te Mana-matauranga: Knowledge and Power Set Me Free …”. In Weaving Te Whāriki: Aotearoa New Zealand’s Early Childhood Curriculum Document in Theory and Practice, ed. J. Nuttall. Wellington: NZCER, p. 68.

3 Rangimarie Turuki Pere (1997). Te Wheke: A Celebration of Infinite Wisdom. Gisborne: Ao Ako Global Learning New Zealand, p. 32.

4 Étienne Wenger (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 263.

5 Ron Ritchhart (2002). Intellectual Character: What It Is, Why It Matters, and How to Get It. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, p. 7.

6 ibid., pp. 9–18.

Margaret Donaldson, R. Grieve, and C. Pratt (1983). Early Childhood Development and Education: Readings in Psychology. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, p. 1.

8 Ritchhart (2002), p. 171.

9 In a 1999 paper entitled “Rethinking Transfer: A Simple Proposal with Multiple Implications”, John D. Bransford and Daniel L. Schwartz summarise their research group’s findings on what they call a Preparation for Future Learning (PFL) perspective on learning outcomes and learning transfer. They comment as follows (p. 84): “Overall, one of the important lessons of the PFL perspective is that it moves ‘affective’ and social concepts such as ‘tolerance for ambiguity’ (Kuhn, 1962), courage spans (Wertime, 1979), persistence in the face of difficulty (Dweck, 1989), willingness to learn from others, and sensitivity to the expectations of others from the periphery toward the center of cognitive theories of learning. These factors can have a major impact on people’s dispositions to learn throughout their lives.” References in this quote: T. S. Kuhn (1962), The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: University of Chicago Press; R. Wertime (1979), “Students’ Problems and Courage Spans”, in Cognitive Process Instruction, ed. J. Lockhead and J. Clements, Philadelphia: Franklin Institute Press; Carol S. Dweck (1989), “Motivation”, in Foundations for a Psychology of Education, ed. A. Lesgold and R. Glaser, pp. 87–136, Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. The primary reference is: John D. Bransford and Daniel L. Schwartz (1999), “Rethinking Transfer: A Simple Proposal with Multiple Implications”, Review of Research in Education, vol. 24, pp. 61–100.

10 See Margaret Carr (2001), Assessment in Early Childhood Settings: Learning Stories, London: Paul Chapman Publishing, pp. 21–47. See also pp. 123–124 for an example of the learning in a technology project in an early childhood centre analysed in these terms as being ready, being, willing, being able (having funds of knowledge), and being able (having skills). Being “ready, willing and able” to learn was also used by Guy Gaxton in his 1990 publication Teaching to Learn (London: Cassell) in which he argues that “in a society where knowledge, values, jobs, technology and even styles of relationship are changing as fast as they are, it can be strongly argued that the school’s major responsibility must be to help young people become ready, willing and able to cope with change successfully: that is, to be powerful learners” (p. 64).

11 Two volumes of papers were published in 2001 and 2003 respectively. These volumes were as follows: Dominique Simone Rychen and Laura Hersh Salganik, eds (2001), Defining and Selecting Key Competencies, Göttingen: Hogrefe and Huber; and Dominique Simone Rychen and Laura Hersh Salganik, eds (2003), Key Competencies for a Successful Life and a Well-Functioning Society, Göttingen: Hogrefe and Huber.

12 H. Haste (2001). “Ambiguity, Autonomy, and Agency: Psychological Challenges to New Competence”. In Defining and Selecting Key Competencies, op. cit., chapter 5, p. 94.

13 Franz E. Weinert (2001). “Concept of Competence: A Conceptual Clarification”. In Defining and Selecting Key Competencies, op. cit., chapter 3, pp. 45–65.

14 ibid., p. 51.

15 Dominique Simone Rychen and Laura Hersh Salganik (2003). “A Holistic Model of Competence”. In Key Competencies for a Successful Life and a Well-Functioning Society, op. cit., chapter 2, pp. 41–62.

16 Mary Jane Drummond (2003). Assessing Children’s Learning. London: David Fulton, p. 186.

17 Margaret Carr (1998a). Project for Assessing Children’s Experiences: Final Report to the Ministry. Wellington: Ministry of Education. These “key dispositions” are adapted from Margaret Carr (1998b), Assessing Children’s Learning in Early Childhood Settings: A Professional Development Programme for Discussion and Reflection (support booklet and three videos), Wellington: NZCER, pp. 14–15. For a detailed discussion of the theory and application of learning stories in early childhood settings, see Carr (2001), op. cit.

18 Guy Claxton and Margaret Carr (2004). “A Framework for Teaching Learning: The Dynamics of Disposition”. Early Years, vol. 24 no. 1, March, p. 89.

19 The label “mindful”, replacing “powerful”, was developed during a Ministry of Education Teaching and Learning Research Initiative project (2004–05) entitled Key Learning Competencies across Place and Time/Kimihia te Ara Tōtika Hei Oranga mō tō Ao. See also Ellen J. Langer (1989), The Power of Mindful Learning, New York: Addison Wesley.

20 Urie Bronfenbrenner (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, p. 205.

21 This review was published in detail as “Assessment and Classroom Learning” in the journal Assessment in Education, vol. 5 no. 1 (Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam, 1998a). A summary, entitled Inside the Black Box, was published in the same year (Black and Wiliam, 1998b), and a book about putting the ideas into practice in schools was published in 2003 (see note 27 below). The ideas in the book were summarised in Paul Black, Christine Harrison, Clare Lee, Bethan Marshall, and Dylan Wiliam (2002), Working Inside the Black Box, London: School of Education, King’s College. The relevant references are listed below as notes 23, 25, and 28. The research study on tasks referred to here is as follows: Carole Ames (1992). “Classrooms: Goals, Structures, and Student Motivation”. Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 84 no 3, pp. 261–271.

22 Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam (1998b). Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment. London: School of Education, King’s College, p. 2.

23 ibid., pp. 3 and 4.

24 Black and Wiliam (1998a), p. 31.

25 Black and Wiliam (1998b), p. 13.

26 ibid., p. 9.

27 Paul Black, Christine Harrison, Clare Lee, Bethan Marshall, and Dylan Wiliam (2003). Assessment for Learning: Putting It into Practice. Maidenhead, Berks.: Open University Press, p. 46.

28 Black and Wiliam (1998b), p. 9.

29 ibid., p. 14.

30 Black and Wiliam (1998a), p. 24.

31 Black and Wiliam (1998b), p. 12.

32 ibid., p. 10.

33 ibid., p. 15.