Stand-downs, suspensions, exclusions and expulsions guidelines – Part 1

About the guidelines

These guidelines:

  • are designed to assist school boards, principals, and teachers with their legal options and duties and meet their obligations under relevant statutory requirements, and
  • are for use in all state and state-integrated schools.

Independent schools may also wish to adopt this guide.

Please note:  The Education and Training Act 2020 has replaced the Education Act 1989.  Any references to the Education Act 1989 in the Stand-downs, Suspensions, Exclusions and Expulsions (SEEE) Guidelines should be replaced with the relevant sections in the new Education and Training Act 2020. In Part 1, this includes replacing the sections of the Act in Appendix 1: The Education Act 1989 and Appendix 2: Education (Stand-down, Suspension, Exclusion and Expulsion) Rules 1999. In Part 2, this includes replacing the sections of the Act in the letters in the Appendix in the Good Practice Guidelines.

The Guidelines comprise:

Part 1 – Legal options and duties [PDF, 2.4 MB]

Part 2 – Good practice [PDF, 2.4 MB]

These guidelines replace those published by the Ministry of Education in June 2004 and the 2007 Supplement. The paragraphs have been numbered for ease of use and reference. Cross references to Part 2 – Good practice are given where relevant.

Principal's decision

  • Principal's decision
      1. Only the principal,1 may make the decision to stand-down or suspend.
      2. You must ask these questions about the facts from the investigation:
        1. Did the student’s behaviour constitute gross misconduct, continual disobedience or behaviour risking serious harm? and
        2. If the incident was gross misconduct or continual disobedience, did it set a harmful or dangerous example to other students at school? and
        3. What part did the student’s individual circumstances play? and
        4. What action is appropriate in these circumstances?
      3. These questions will help you to understand your legal options and duties in Section 80 of the Education and Training Act 2020.
      4. If the incident does not fit into one of the three categories (gross misconduct, continual disobedience or behaviour risking serious harm) then you may not stand-down or suspend.
  • Was the student's behaviour gross misconduct?
      1. You should ask: Is any misconduct:
        1. significantly blameworthy and remarkable? and
        2. serious enough to justify removing the student from school, even though it might damage the student’s education?
      2. Gross misconduct is never trivial. There is a high threshold. Whether an incident is gross misconduct will always depend on the particular situation. You must weigh up all the factors. A decision may never be predetermined by school policies or breaking a school rule. The courts have established that you cannot automatically label a particular action or behaviour as gross misconduct.
      1. You must also be satisfied that the gross misconduct is a harmful or dangerous example to other students at your school. You should ask: If other students were to know about it, would it undermine discipline and safety standards for that behaviour to go unpunished?


  • Is there continual disobedience?
      1. You should ask: Is there a pattern of entrenched misbehaviour?3
      2. You must be satisfied that the continual disobedience is a harmful or dangerous example to other students at your school. You may ask yourself: If other students were to know about it, would it undermine discipline and safety standards for that behaviour to go unpunished?


  • Is there behaviour risking serious harm to the student and other students if the student is not stood-down or suspended?
      1. You should ask: Because of the student’s behaviour, it is likely that the student, or other students at the school, will likely be seriously harmed if the student is not stood-down or suspended?
      2. This category is about the risk of serious harm, ie, distress or injury, to the student or other students. It is only concerned with student safety, in contrast with the more discipline-orientated categories of gross misconduct and continual disobedience.
      3. You can only use this category where a stand-down or suspension is the only valid response to a safety concern. This ground is truly a last resort. If you can manage the safety concern in other ways you may not suspend or stand-down using this ground.
  • What part have the student's individual circumstances played?
      1. You must consider also the student’s individual circumstances and the context of the incident. This does not have to be exhaustive: the Act requires prompt action. If you only have limited information within your school, you might choose to consult a parent. You may ask yourself:
        1. does anything change my perception about the seriousness of the incident or the part the student played?
        2. are there any pastoral concerns or mitigating factors? Is the behaviour out of character? If so, can you identify why and does this change your view of the situation?
        3. are there any strengths or good factors to note about the student?

      [Refer Part II, Section 2: 9 Special education needs]

      1. Whether the student has been in trouble or been stood-down or suspended in the past is only one factor for you to weigh up; it cannot pre-determine what you decide to do.

        HINT If you have a school rule or policy about something this can guide but not predetermine your response. You must think through each and every possible stand-down or suspension decision.
      1. Finally, you must weigh up all of the factors and decide on a course of action. Ask: What would be the right remedy in the circumstances?

        HINT Even if you have decided that you could stand-down or suspend, you must still decide if you should. Considering all the circumstances, there may be a better solution.

        [Refer Part II Section 2: 7 Behaviour management]
      1. Consider that:
        1. the consequences are serious. Both stand-down and suspension interrupt the student’s right to attend school. Suspended students might have their suspension extended by the board, or even be excluded or expelled
        2. the student should already have received appropriate guidance and counselling or other pastoral support if problems were known to the school.4 A parent should already have been informed of matters affecting the student’s relationships or progress.5 Stand-downs and suspensions remain a last resort
        3. you must consider the student’s individual circumstances as well as the facts of the particular incident. Both are important.
  • Document your decision
      1. If you decided to stand-down or suspend, your decision and the reasons for it should be accurately recorded in writing. Your records need to be complete. There should be enough information in the report to show that you turned your mind to the criteria you had to apply. Document why you made the decision and how you arrived at the decision.

      [Refer Part II, Section 3: 11 Documenting processes]