Annual Report 2016 - Part one

Section 19B reports

The Vote Education Section 19B Report in Relation to Non-Departmental Appropriations for the year ended 30 June 2016 was presented to the House in accordance with section 19B of the Public Finance Act 1989 on 20 October 2016.

Vote Education Section 19B Report [PDF, 329 KB]

Parts 2 and 3 of the Annual Report 2016

Download the full Annual Report 2016 to view:

  • Part 2 — Statements of service Performance
  • Part 3 — Annual financial statements.

Annual Report 2016 [PDF, 1.2 MB]

Amendment to the report

Since being tabled, the Statement of Cash Flows has been amended for a minor editorial error.

Every child and student achieves educational success

New Zealand needs an education system that delivers high-quality educational outcomes from early childhood, through schooling and into tertiary education. Every student, no matter their background or needs, should be supported to meet their potential.

  • Improving educational achievement results
    • The success of our future society and economy requires getting better educational achievement with less disparity. Equitable achievement for Māori, Pasifika and students from low socio-economic backgrounds is a major priority, and our focus is on ensuring the system settings are in place to support those outcomes.

      Improving performance for National Standards

      National Standards measure student achievement against the New Zealand Curriculum for English-medium schools in primary and intermediate school for Years 1 to 8.

      Achievement levels at or above National Standards for 2015 in reading, writing and maths were consistent with previous years. Overall, however, achievement for Māori and Pasifika across the three standards is lower than for other groups and various initiatives are targeted to address this (see pages 22 to 25).

      Indicator 2 Increase enrolled students at or above National Standards levels, per 100 students

      Graph showing indicator 2: increasing enrolled students at or above National Standards levels, per 100 students. For reading, graph shows increase from 76.2% in 2011 to 78.0% in 2015, for maths an increase from 72.2% in 2011 to 75.5% in 2015 and for writing an increase from 68.0% in 2011 to 71.4% in 2015, each with a 2017 target of 85%.

      (All numbers %)20142015Change (% points)2017 target
      Reading All 78.0 78.0 - 85.0
        Māori 68.6 68.8 ↑ 0.2 85.0
        Pasifika 65.0 66.0 ↑ 1.0 85.0
        Decile 1-3 65.0 65.5 ↑ 0.5 85.0
      Writing All 71.1 71.4 ↑ 0.3 85.0
        Māori 61.2 61.6 ↑ 0.4 85.0
        Pasifika 59.7 60.6 ↑ 0.9 85.0
        Decile 1-3 57.9 58.7 ↑ 0.8 85.0
      Maths All 75.2 75.5 ↑ 0.3 85.0
        Māori 65.0 65.4 ↑ 0.4 85.0
        Pasifika 61.9 63.3 ↑ 1.2 85.0
        Decile 1-3 62.5 63.3 ↑ 0.8 85.0

      Although evidence from the National Standards School Sample Monitoring and Evaluation Project report suggested that overall teachers’ judgements lacked dependability in 2014, we know that schools are increasingly addressing achievement relative to the standards and targets. More students rated ‘below’ or ‘well below’ the standards are being identified for and receiving targeted teaching interventions.

      Improving performance at NCEA Level 2 or equivalent qualifications

      The National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) measures achievement at secondary school. NCEA Level 2 is the minimum qualification that young people need to progress to further education or training and employment. The Government has set a BPS target for 85% of 18-year-olds to have achieved NCEA Level 2 or an equivalent qualification in 2017.

      The 2015 NCEA Level 2 achievement result for all 18-year-olds is 83.3%, a nine percentage point increase since 2011. We are on track to achieve the 85% target by 2017 and are increasing our support to schools and students to ensure this is met.

      A challenge for the education system is to ensure that the whole population, including Māori and Pasifika, benefit from this increase. The 2015 NCEA Level 2 achievement result for Māori 18-year-olds is 71.1%, a 14% increase since 2011. For Pasifika it is 77.6%, a 12% increase since 2011. These increases may not be enough for Māori to achieve an equitable 85% target. Additional support is being directed towards these students, tailoring education and learning opportunities to ensure their achievement in NCEA and post- secondary qualifications.

      Generally, school leaver attainment has increased across the board, but at a slower rate in 2015 compared to previous years. Students are staying at school longer and gaining higher qualifications.

      Indicator 3 Increase the proportion of 18-year-olds with NCEA Level 2 or equivalent qualification
      Better Public Services: Boosting Skills and Employment, Result 5

      Graph showing indicator 3: increasing the proportion of 18-year-olds with NCEA Level 2 or equivalent, from 74.3% in 2011 to 83.3%.

      Year to December (All numbers %)20142015Change (% points)2017 target
      All 81.2 83.3 ↑ 2.1 85
      Māori 67.7 71.1 ↑ 3.4 85
      Pasifika 75.0 77.6 ↑ 2.6 85
      Decile 1-3 schools 71.6 75.0 ↑ 3.4 85
      Qualified secondary leavers with NCEA qualifications 2015

      Graph showing the qualified secondary leavers with NCEA qualifications in 2015, with 88.4% achieving NCEA Level 1 or above (an increase of 0.9% since 2014), 79.1% achieving NCEA Level 2 or above (an increase of 1.2%) and 52.8% achieving NCEA Level 3 or above (an increase of 2.3%).

      School leaver highest qualification Number of students 2015

      School leaver highest qualification Number of students 2015.

      Description of school leaver highest qualification image

      Graph showing the number of students and their highest level of qualification for 2015, broken down by ethnicity:

      • Māori – 3,146 at less than NCEA Level 1, 1,879 at NCEA Level 1, 4,146 at NCEA Level 2 and 4,139 at NCEA Level 3 or above
      • Pasifika – 1,011 at less than NCEA Level 1, 804 at NCEA Level 1, 2,214 at NCEA Level 2 and 2,805 at NCEA Level 3 or above
      • European/Pākeha – 3,204 at less than NCEA Level 1, 3,211 at NCEA Level 1, 9,768 at NCEA Level 2 and 21,628 at NCEA Level 3 or above
      • Asian – 340 at less than NCEA Level 1, 283 at NCEA Level 1, 1,035 at NCEA Level 2 and 4,941 at NCEA Level 3 or above
  • Implementing Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako
    • Research shows that within schools the quality of teaching has the biggest influence on whether students succeed. We have some of the best teachers and leaders in the world. However, there are barriers to sharing best practice and working together.

      We are in our third year of implementing Investing in Educational Success. This is a multi-year programme to further lift student achievement and share teaching and leadership practice through three broad initiatives:

      • investing in quality leadership and teaching through Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako
      • supporting innovative teaching via the Teacher Led Innovation Fund
      • using the Principal Recruitment Allowance (PRA) to attract high-performing principals to high needs schools.

      Establishing Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako

      The creation of Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako allows groups of schools, kura and early childhood services to come together to raise educational achievement and provide a pathway from ECE to tertiary education.

      Boards of trustees of schools and kura in Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako receive operational funding and staffing support for forming and maintaining their Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako.

      As at 30 June 2016, there were 117 Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako spread throughout the country, consisting of over 1,000 schools (42% of eligible schools) and over 320,000 students. In the August 2016 tranche there were 31 new Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako presented to the Minister for approval which will then represent a total of 52% of eligible schools.

      We expect most schools will be part of a Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako by December 2017. ECE and ngā kōhanga reo services are beginning to join Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako. We also expect to see tertiary providers joining or working closely with them over time.

      Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako are agreeing achievement challenges to describe their shared student achievement goals, the factors affecting achievement for students and how those factors will be addressed. As at 30 June 2016, 25 Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako had finalised their achievement challenges in areas such as reading, writing, mathematics and NCEA achievement. A full list of each Community’s achievement challenge is available on our website.

      Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako 30 June 2016.

      Long description of Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako map

      Map providing information about the Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako in place at 30 June 2016, by region:

      • Auckland: 26 Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako, 199 schools, 104,709 learners
      • Tai Tokerau: 2 Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako, 26 schools, 4,210 learners
      • Waikato: 14 Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako, 128 schools, 37,118 learners
      • Rotorua / Bay of Plenty / Taupō: 13 Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako, 103 schools, 45,283 learners
      • Hawke’s Bay / Gisborne: 9 Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako, 72 schools, 18,904 learners
      • Taranaki / Manawatu / Whanganui: 6 Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako, 54 schools, 22,029 learners
      • Wellington: 12 Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako, 112 schools, 27,617 learners
      • Nelson / Malborough / West Coast: 11 Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako, 100 schools, 22,029 learners
      • Canterbury: 15 Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako, 134 schools, 38,407 learners
      • Otago / Southland: 9 Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako, 78 schools, 14,000 learners

      Supporting Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako

      To support Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako to build collaborative practices, develop, then meet their achievement challenges, Professional Learning and Development (PLD) support from existing PLD funding is being tailored to their implementation needs.

      To ensure that the investments in data, collaboration and PLD combine to their best effect, we are making expert partners (academics and expert practitioners) available for Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako. This will support accurate diagnoses of the learning challenges and appropriate pedagogy to respond, set and measure the actual impact on student learning and achievement.

      To optimise the new operational framework that Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako offer, we are exploring how bundled packages of services can be developed in  the areas of property management, back- office business services and ICT support and we are creating a menu of external providers. In time, support for additional areas can be added. Taking this approach will generate economies of scale and enable principals   and teachers to focus more on their core business of raising student achievement.

      Investing in leadership and supporting high-quality teaching

      School boards can apply for a PRA. The allowance is designed to help attract a wider pool of experienced applicants to a vacant principal role in our struggling schools. It will help New Zealand’s most high-need schools and kura attract highly effective principals who can provide the leadership needed to lift student achievement. A total of 38 schools have expressed an interest in offering the PRA and, of these, 19 had been approved to offer it by 30 June 2016 and 11 principals had been appointed with the allowance.

      We expect that each Community of Learning | Kāhui Ako will have a number of teachers sharing their subject and practice expertise to get the best out of the combined strengths of their colleagues. Teachers are also provided with new career opportunities through opening their classrooms as models of learning for other teachers within schools that are part of a Community of Learning | Kāhui Ako.

      There are now over 300 across-school and within-school teachers appointed to the new roles.

      Supporting innovative teaching

      The Teacher-led Innovation Fund is an $18 million pūtea/fund running to June 2020. It supports the development of innovative and effective teaching practices to improve learning outcomes and share the innovations that work across schools so that they become common practice. Improved learning outcomes are sought for Māori and Pasifika students, students with special education needs, and children and young people from low socio-economic backgrounds.

      We have received 309 initial proposals and 134 full applications from schools for teacher-led research projects, of which 86 projects were successful in winning $6.27 million of funding.

      We expect the first analysis of project outcomes later in 2016. For research projects completed since the inception of the fund, so far 100% have resulted in the spread of new teaching practices.

      The second tranche of 46 projects ($3.6 million) began implementation on 1 July 2016.

  • Supporting Māori students to achieve their full potential
    • Nearly one in four students in our total student population is Māori. We have continued to progress the strategy in Ka Hikitia – Accelerating Success 2013-2017, which sets out our commitment to improve outcomes for Māori students through the education system.

      Despite our focus, these students still face significant inequity which increases as they go through the education system. Māori children are:

      3% less likely to participate in early learning before starting school

      19% less likely to be achieving at or above National Standards

      22% less likely to achieve NCEA Level 2.2

      Targeting efforts to improve results

      Our efforts are succeeding in raising Māori achievement and reducing disparities in many areas. Significant improvements have been made in early years and NCEA, but achievement in primary has not improved.

      We have continued to provide a range of resources to engage, support and accelerate students’ learning in both Māori and English-medium education settings. We have implemented Mauri Tū Mauri Ora, delivering literacy and numeracy programmes and tools in Māori-medium schools and kura to accelerate progress and raise achievement for ākonga identified as priority learners in Years 1 to 8.

      Our targeted initiatives for students at-risk of not achieving (page 29) also support Māori, and we are seeking to boost tertiary achievement as outlined on pages 36-37.

      Engaging parents, whānau and iwi

      We continued to provide information and resources, through workshops, community presentations and regional events, for parents and families to support their child’s education. Through this work, we have identified consistent knowledge gaps. Our future efforts will address these to increase parents’ confidence to engage with learning centres and support their children’s learning.

      We have relationships with a number of iwi organisations, recognising they can significantly influence and support achievement of education outcomes for Māori.

      In 2015/16, we had shared outcome agreements with 29 iwi. Through these agreements, iwi developed and implemented learning support programmes and provided direct support for:

      • the parents/families of 3 to 4-year-old children, to enable their participation in ECE services
      • primary students (Years 1 to 8) at risk of not achieving literacy and numeracy standards (as measured through National Standards/Ngā Whanaketanga)
      • 16 to 17-year-olds at risk of not achieving NCEA Level 2.

      We have recently partnered with Te Wānanga o Aotearoa to establish Ka Hikitia Express to Success hubs in Northland, Auckland, Waikato, the Bay of Plenty and Tairāwhiti. Similar to the Pasifika PowerStations, these hubs provide weekly sessions which focus on enabling Māori parents/families to support their children’s learning, and specific support for Māori 16 to 18-year-olds undertaking NCEA Level 2 or an equivalent qualification. While the focus is on 16 to 18-year-olds, children of all ages are welcome at the hubs, ensuring the entire whānau is benefitting from the focused support to improve education outcomes.

      Supporting Māori language and culture in education

      Māori students’ learning achievements are strongly linked to their wellbeing from having a clear sense of identity and foundation in Māoritanga. Achievement data shows that Māori students in Māori-medium education settings acquire NCEA qualifications at rates higher than Māori in English-medium settings.

      We worked across the Ministry and with education sector agencies to improve the alignment and accountability of initiatives targeted at learners of te reo, aligning them with the priorities expressed in Tau Mai Te Reo – The Māori Language in Education Strategy 2013-2017.

      Most Māori students (66.8%) are learning te reo in an English-medium setting. Only (9.5%) of Māori students learn te reo in Māori- medium education.

      2 These statistics are calculated as Māori students compared to non-Māori students.
  • Supporting Pasifika students to achieve their full potential
    • Targeting effort to achieve improved results

      The Pasifika Education Plan 2013-2017 (PEP) sets out Ministry and education sector activities designed to accelerate and raise  the educational achievement for Pasifika learners. The PEP puts Pasifika learners, with their parents, families and communities, at the centre of the education system. This is so that all initiatives respond to the identities, languages, cultures and aspirations of each Pasifika group and deliver a consistently high-quality and effective education for Pasifika success.

      Our targeted initiatives for students at-risk of not achieving (page 29) also support Pasifika, and we are seeking to boost tertiary achievement as outlined on pages 36-37.

      Over the past year, the educational outcomes for Pasifika students have improved with:

      • increased participation in ECE
      • higher levels of attainment of National Standards and NCEA Level 2.

      Engaging Pasifika parents, families and communities

      A core element of implementation of the PEP is Pasifika PowerUP, an education programme which actively helps Pasifika parents and families to support their children’s learning, and provides academic assistance for secondary and primary students. Delivered at 15 PowerStations in community settings, PowerUP is helping accelerate Pasifika participation in early learning, and engagement and achievement in National Standards and NCEA.

      Benefits are already visible from the nationwide rollout of the PowerUP programme in 2015. Over 1,700 families were involved, with high numbers of secondary and primary students eager for extra support. Parents and families are gaining a better understanding of the education system. They are becoming more confident to support their children’s education, engaging more often with their teachers and schools, and are better placed to make informed decisions to help their children’s learning.

      Together with our education sector partner agencies, we have established partnerships with national Pasifika organisations and church communities to leverage off their network of Pasifika parents and families and better engage parents and families in their children’s education.

      These partnerships seek to identify areas where we can collaborate to raise the value of education and drive actions and innovations that support Pasifika learners to become successful achievers in education.

      Through our Pasifika Organisations Partnership Strategy, we have worked with the Tamariki and Youth of Manukau Trust, a social service provider handling referrals from Child, Youth and Family. This has strong connections with vulnerable families living in Otara North. The Trust has enrolled almost 40 pre-school children who were not previously engaged in ECE, as well as receiving Targeted Assistance Programme funding to build an ECE centre by December 2016.

      We have also worked with each Pasifika church denomination, through our Pasifika Church Partnership Strategy, to champion our Early Learning Taskforce work, help co-construct early learning solutions and increase demand for ECE.

  • Strengthening inclusion
    • We want a fully inclusive education system where all children get the learning support they need to make progress and achieve to their very best throughout their education.

      The Learning Support (previously Special Education) Update

      During 2015, we engaged widely about proposed improvements to an inclusive education system for all children and young people. We held 156 engagement forums with over 3,650 people across New Zealand, including parents, families and educators. The Learning Support Update is looking at the whole education system from early childhood through to tertiary education.

      The engagement findings were released in December 2015, together with the Update Action Plan. At the same time we began a number of local projects to start making immediate improvements to our current specialist services while building readiness for further change.

      Implementing immediate improvements

      Most local projects focus on children and young people’s transitions through the system and the early identification of their support needs. We are collaborating locally with sector partners including resource teachers, special schools, early learning centres, schools and Communities of Learning | Kāhui Ako.

      We are already seeing early results from these projects, including:

      • better transitions from ECE to primary school
      • simpler processes for parents and educators to access the support their children need
      • earlier and better support for early childhood learners.

      Modernising learning support

      Since the end of 2015, we have continued working with our sector partners and others to design a simpler and more inclusive education system.

      We are strengthening inclusion and modernising learning support in four key ways:

      • developing an outcomes framework with clear measurable goals to strengthen accountability and provide system-wide performance information
      • improving investment decisions for earlier interventions that are based on understanding learners’ needs and what services work for whom
      • reviewing priority specialist services to improve flexibility
      • more effective and simpler services that are easier to access, timely and appropriate.

      We started the detailed design of a new service delivery model that is child-centred, collaborative, features learning plans for individuals and has a single point of contact and accountability. The Minister of Education released Cabinet decisions on the Ministry’s next steps and we are aiming to start national implementation from 2017.

      Maintaining and improving services

      During 2015/16, we have directly provided or funded specialist services and support to over 35,000 children and young people with additional learning needs.

      We have reduced the average length of time children and young people have to wait for support to be provided following a referral, from almost 80 days in January 2016 to 73 days by June 2016.

      We continued to fund resource teachers to work with teachers, schools and kura to support over 15,000 Year 1 to 10 students with learning and behavioural difficulties. These resource teachers have a particular focus on supporting Māori and Pasifika students, and children and young people moving into state care.

      Our Intensive Wraparound Service (IWS) has supported over 320 children and young people who were struggling to stay at school and learn. These children struggle due to their highly complex and challenging educational, behavioural and social issues at school, in their families and whānau, and within their communities. The Patterns of Student Progress in the Intensive Wraparound Service report released in March 2016 showed that children have benefitted significantly while receiving IWS support.

      We continued to monitor the satisfaction of parents and educators of children and young people who receive a special education core service from the Ministry. The number of children receiving a special education core service continues to increase, reflecting in part the increases in both the pre-school age population and school rolls. The number of children receiving our early intervention services has further grown due to the increased participation in ECE as this is where most of our referrals for that service come from.

      Our 2015 client satisfaction survey found:

      • 71% of respondents (78% of parents and 63% of educators) were satisfied with the overall quality of the services provided
      • 69% of respondents (76% of parents and 61% of educators) were satisfied with the child’s progress after receiving the service.

      Both of these results fell short of our stretch targets of 85%.

      The two areas that parents and educators were most satisfied with were being treated fairly (83%) and the competence of our special education staff (80%).

      Parent and educator satisfaction with the Ministry’s special education services.

      Long description: Parent and educator satisfaction with the Ministry's special education services graph

      We have a number of initiatives underway to improve parent and educator satisfaction in the future:

      • undertaking a number of service improvement projects across the country as part of the Learning Support Update
      • increasing practitioners’ use of an Outcome Measurement Tool, which helps quantify the progress made by each child after receiving a special education service
      • ensuring more communication with parents, educators and other members of the team around the child
      • targeting our staffing better to provide specialist services more quickly and reduce waiting times and waitlists
      • undertaking more detailed analysis of the 2015 survey to inform medium and longer-term improvement actions.

      Strengthening capability and inclusive practice

      We have developed a range of resources to improve inclusive practice in schools including:

      • an inclusive education website with more than 20 ‘how to’ guides to help teachers and school leaders meet the needs of diverse learners
      • inclusive practice and the school curriculum website, which gives practical strategies to adapt teaching and learning activities
      • videos from New Zealand classrooms, teachers, teacher aides and students looking at how to support learning and positive student outcomes.

      We also delivered training to around 1,800 resource teachers, learning support coordinators, deputy principals and staff on these new resources and the inclusive themes within them.

      Image long descriptions

      Long description of Parent and educator satisfaction with special education services graphs
      Satisfaction with the overall quality of service delivery 

      Graph showing satisfaction of parents and educators with the overall quality of service delivery since 2011 (excluding 2014):

      • 2011: parents – 76%, educators 64%
      • 2012: parents – 78%, educators – 63%
      • 2013: parents – 76%, educators – 67%
      • 2015: parents – 78%, educators – 63%, with a target of 85%
      Satisfaction with child’s progress

      Graph showing satisfaction of parents and educators with the child’s progress since 2011 (excluding 2014):

      • 2011: parents – 76%, educators, 64%
      • 2012: parents – 74%, educators – 59%
      • 2013: parents – 75%, educators – 64%
      • 2015: parents – 76%, educators – 61%, with a target of 85%

      Note: No annual survey was undertaken in 2014.

  • Lifting education outcomes for students at risk of not achieving
    • We are working to ensure that we have a more student-centric education system that supports every learner to be successful. Strong foundation skills and support for students at risk of not achieving need to be the norm and not the exception.

      Better monitoring and improved participation

      Participation in education has a significant impact on students’ achievement levels. Every day a student is not at school is a day they are not learning and we all have a part to play when it comes to keeping students in class. Schools, along with parents and guardians, are legally responsible for ensuring children are attending.

      Our current measure of the national average attendance rate (see page 58) is based on a week-long national snapshot and showed an increase from 88% in 2014 to 90% for 2015.

      In 2015/16, we expanded the scope of the annual attendance reporting to include measurement of attendance across the whole of Term 2, with a student who attended more than 90% of half days classified as attending school regularly. This does not mean we regard 90% as adequate for learning; it is the threshold we are using to benchmark attendance. This information should help school leaders and other education sector representatives understand patterns of attendance in New Zealand schools and how these affect achievement.

      Half-day attendance in Term 2 2015 by ethnicity

      Half-day attendance in Term 2 2015 by ethnicity.

      Long description of half day attendance graph

      In 2015, 69.4% of students attended school regularly compared to 68.7% in 2014. Māori and Pasifika students had the lowest regular attendance rates, 56.7% and 60.6% respectively. Our analysis of Years 7 to 11 students in 2015 also showed that attendance in Years 9 to 11 was the most significant predictor of achieving NCEA Level 1 in Year 11. This indicates that it is never too late to raise a student’s chances of achieving by improving their attendance.

      We provide a range of support for schools to address poor attendance, and in the most severe cases of non-attendance schools can request the support of the integrated Attendance Service. About 71% of schools (1,720) are signed up to use the service, up from about 60% (1,488) in 2014.

      In 2015, age-standardised stand-down rates fell for the ninth consecutive year, and age-standardised stand-down, suspension and exclusion rates are at their lowest in 16 years of recorded data. Schools continue to stand-down, suspend and exclude more Māori students than any other ethnic group.

      Per 1,000 students20142015Change
      Stand-downs 19.8 19.4 ↓ 0.4
      Suspensions 3.7 3.6 ↓ 0.1
      Exclusions 1.4 1.4 No change
      Expulsions 1.2 1.6 ↑ 0.4

      Male students are more than twice as likely to receive a stand-down, suspension or exclusion, and over four times more likely to be expelled than females. Expulsions can only be received by learners aged 16 and over, where there is no requirement that they stay in the schooling system.

      Creating a positive environment for learning

      Positive Behaviour for Learning (PB4L) is a long-term, systemic approach involving several initiatives. These include whole- school change initiatives, targeted group programmes and individual student support services. These initiatives help parents, whānau, teachers, early childhood centres and schools address problem behaviour,improve children’s wellbeing and increase educational achievement.

      The diagram on page 29 illustrates how PB4L initiatives work together to create a portfolio of interventions and supports.

      During 2015/16, the New Zealand Council for Educational Research (NZCER) reported on the evaluations of three PB4L initiatives – PB4L School-Wide, Incredible Years Teacher (IYT) and Check and Connect.

      PB4L portfolio of interventions and supports

      PB4L portfolio of interventions and supports.

      Long description of the PB4L portfolio of interventions and supports

      With more than 680 schools implementing the framework, PB4L School-Wide benefits over 270,000 students. The evaluation found the programme had several positive impacts, such as decreases in stand-down, suspension, exclusion and expulsion rates, increases in student engagement and decreases in major behavioural incidents.

      To December 2015, the IYT programme had been delivered to over 12,000 teachers and early childhood educators. The evaluation completed in 2015/16 reported large positive differences in target students’ engagement and learning, teachers’ confidence in managing student behaviour and frequent use of new IYT teaching techniques.

      Check and Connect has been piloted in 20 schools with 255 students participating. The 2015/16 NZCER evaluation of this programme showed an increase in wellbeing with the majority of participants reporting they had
      a clearer sense of their own strengths and better ways of dealing with things that used to upset them.

      We have developed a range of resources and information for schools, parents and other organisations and launched the interagency website ( during the inaugural Bullying Free Week in May 2016.

      We also published the 2015 edition of Bullying Prevention and Response: A Guide for Schools, which was developed by the Bullying Prevention Advisory Group, chaired by the Secretary for Education. It emphasises the role of the community in preventing bullying and supports schools to create positive environments in which bullying cannot thrive.

      Targeted initiatives to provide additional support

      Year 9 Plus is an initiative that tests whether we can change outcomes (for students who traditionally would not attain a Level 2 qualification) by intervening early.

      Through a trial in the wider Gisborne region, approximately 100 Year 9 students have been matched with Champions from their communities to support (and learn from) their journeys. The Champions will follow this cohort through their secondary education until they leave school.

      In 2015/16, we developed and implemented Count Me In which is a multi-partner ‘impact’ intervention, a 2-year programme ending in June 2017. This programme:

      • provides targeted and tailored support to Māori and Pasifika 16 to 18-year-olds who are outside the education system to re- engage in learning and attain NCEA Level 2 or an equivalent qualification
      • complements efforts by the Ministry and other education agencies to rapidly lift outcomes for Māori and Pasifika young people within the formal education system.

      To monitor progress, we use case management data from reports on each young person’s progress through the stages of the Count Me In intervention methodology. This also enables us to identify emerging issues, and work proactively with parents/ families, providers and/or other agencies to address these.

      We also developed the At-Risk of Not Achieving (ARoNA) initiative. ARoNA aims to ensure at least 85% of Māori and 85% of Pasifika 18-year-olds achieve NCEA Level 2 or equivalent in 2017. We worked with secondary schools to identify and secure additional supports for those students at risk of not achieving NCEA Level 2 or an equivalent qualification.

      Twenty-eight Service Academies were supported through 2015 with the core performance measures being surpassed. Eighty-one percent of students remained with the school throughout the 2015 academic year and, of those students, 83% finished the year with NCEA Level 1 Literacy and Numeracy. A new Academy was added in Kaitaia for 2016, bringing the total to 29.

      For information on Trades Academies see pages 34 and 35.

      Providing Partnership Schools as another schooling option

      The Government has continued to invest in Partnership Schools to provide another option to help raise educational achievement, in particular for groups of students who have been under-served by the mainstream system.

      Nine Partnership Schools/Kura Hourua Schools were operating at the beginning of 2015 in Auckland and Northland, and a third round of procurement was conducted in 2015/16 with contracts for two further schools currently being prepared. The contract for one school – Te Pūmanawa o te Wairua in Whangarei – was terminated, and the Ministry worked with the school’s Trust Board, students and whānau to help the students to transition to other education options.

      While it is too soon to be able to fully assess the impact Partnership Schools have had in providing positive educational outcomes, the schools appear to be achieving positive results for students. Information, including reporting by schools on performance measures, is being proactively released on the Ministry’s website.

      Image long descriptions

      Long description of half day attendance graph

      Graph showing half day attendance in Term 2, 2015 by ethnicity:

      • Māori:
        • 0-75% of half days – 12.6%
        • 75-85% of half days – 16.8%
        • 85-90% of half days – 14.0%
        • 90-95% of half days – 23.6%
        • 95-100% of half days – 33.0%
      • Pasifika:
        • 0-75% of half days – 10.8%
        • 75-85% of half days – 15.5%
        • 85-90% of half days – 13.1%
        • 90-95% of half days – 22.8%
        • 95-100% of half days – 37.7%
      • Asian:
        • 0-75% of half days – 4.2%
        • 75-85% of half days – 7.2%
        • 85-90% of half days – 8.5%
        • 90-95% of half days – 20.2%
        • 95-100% of half days – 59.9%
      • Other:
        • 0-75% of half days – 5.4%
        • 75-85% of half days – 10.1%
        • 85-90% of half days – 10.6%
        • 90-95% of half days – 22.4%
        • 95-100% of half days – 51.5%
      • European/Pākeha:
        • 0-75% of half days – 5.2%
        • 75-85% of half days – 10.4%
        • 85-90% of half days – 11.7%
        • 90-95% of half days – 24.6%
        • 95-100% of half days – 48.0%
      • Total:
        • 0-75% of half days – 7.0%
        • 75-85% of half days – 11.7%
        • 85-90% of half days – 11.8%
        • 90-95% of half days – 23.6%
        • 95-100% of half days – 45.8%
      Long description of the PB4L portfolio of interventions and supports

      Image showing the three levels of support provided by the Positive Behaviour for Learning (PB4L) approach.

      Whole of school change approaches are designed for all students and staff. Pb4L initiatives include PB4L School-wide and PB4L Restorative Practice (these programmes run across all levels of support), Huakina Mai, My FRIENDS Youth, WellBeing@School and PB4LOnline website.

      Targeted programmes are designed for students who need additional support, often working in small groups. PB4L initiatives include Incredible Years Parent, Incredible Years Teacher and Te Mana Tikitiki.

      Individual services are designed for the small number of students who require individualised support tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. PB4L initiatives include the Intensive Wraparound Service and Check and Connect.