Self review guidelines
For an organisation to grow and improve the quality of its services it is important it monitors its performance. Ngā Arohaehae Whai Hua/Self-review Guidelines for Early Childhood Education were created with this in mind.
Glossary and references
Glossary - He kupu whakamārama
analysis - the interpretation (making sense) of information in order to generate evidence that will inform judgments
appraisal - the evaluation of performance
assessment - the practice of observing children's learning (noticing), seeking to understand it (recognising), and acting on this understanding (responding)10
conceptual approach - an approach to analysis that interprets the information in relation to key ideas, theories, or frameworks
community of learners - a community made up of children, families, whānau, teachers, and others who have common learning goals
criteria - principles or standards by which something can be decided or judged
curriculum - the sum total of the experiences, activities, and events, whether direct or indirect, that occur within an environment designed to foster children's learning and development
descriptive approach - an approach to analysis that involves looking for themes, patterns, or contradictions or seeking out predetermined categories
evaluation - the process of using evidence to form a judgment about how well goals are being met, in order to make decisions about change
evidence - information that has been analysed and, as a result, informs the judgments that are made in review
focus - an area of practice that is targeted for review, usually expressed as a question or statement
indicator - a statement that outlines the desired practice or outcome
judgment - a decision or opinion made on the basis of evidence
numerical approach - an approach to analysis that involves counting, comparing, or interpreting different sets of figures or ideas
policy - a rule, course, or principle of action adopted by an early childhood education service regarding particular aspects of practice; a policy should be consistent with the shared vision of that service
portfolio - (also called profile) a collection of observations that form a profile documenting a child's learning over time
review priority - an aspect of practice that is regarded as the most important focus for a review
reflection - the act of looking beyond the taken-for-granted ways of doing things and exploring alternatives for practice
reflexivity - the act of suspending judgments by accepting the fact that there are many ways of knowing and coming to know
vision - a statement that sets out a service's aspirations for children as learners
ako - reciprocal processes of learning
arohaehae - to critically discern
kaupapa - an agenda, a way of doing things, a plan
kaiako - a teacher
raranga - a weaving technique that involves overlapping strands or fibres (six root words are also explored in section 3)
takapa - a mat that is spread out on the floor
tino rangatiratanga - self-determination or the ability to determine one's own destiny
whakatauākī - sayings that each have many meanings rather than a direct translation
whanaungatanga - a value that reinforces the commitment of a group
whānau - a family or group of people who are connected in some way
'ie toga - a fine mat
papa laufala - an everyday mat
References - Ngā āpithihanga
Bevan-Brown, J. (2003). The Cultural Self-review: Providing Culturally Effective, Inclusive Education for Māori Learners. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.
Booth, T. and Ainscow, M. (2004). Index for Inclusion: Developing Learning, Participation and Play in Early Years and Childcare. Bristol: Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education.
Carr, M. (2004). "Assessment in Early Childhood Education: Keeping It Complex, Keeping It Connected, Keeping It Credible". A series of three papers based on keynote addresses presented at Te Tari Puna Ora o Aotearoa/NZ Childcare Association national conferences (2001, 2002, 2004). Wellington: Te Tari Puna Ora o Aotearoa/NZ Childcare Association.
Carr, M., May, H., and Podmore, V. (1998). "Learning and Teaching Stories: New Approaches to Assessment and Evaluation in Relation to Te Whāriki." Paper presented at the 8th European Conference on Equality in Early Childhood Settings, Santiago, Spain, September.
Cordingley, P. (2004). "Teachers Using Evidence: Using What We Know about Teaching and Learning to Reconceptualize Evidence-based Practice". In Evidence-Based Practice in Education, ed. G. Thomas and R. Pring. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Cullen, J. (2005). "The Ethics of Research in Educational Settings". In Teachers' Work in Aotearoa New Zealand, ed. P. Adams, K. Vossler, and C. Scrivens. Southbank, Victoria: Thomson/Dunmore.
Durie, M. (2001). Mauri Ora: The Dynamics of Māori Health. Auckland: Oxford University Press.
Education Review Office (2004). Evaluation Indicators for Education Reviews in Early Childhood Services(external link). Wellington: Education Review Office.
Education Review Office (2005). Evaluation Indicators for Education Reviews in Kōhanga Reo(external link). Wellington: Education Review Office.
Eraut, M. (2004). "Practice-based Evidence". In Evidence-Based Practice in Education, ed. G. Thomas and R. Pring. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Goodfellow, J. (2001). "Wise Practice: The Need to Move beyond Best Practice in Early Childhood Education". Australian Journal of Early Childhood, vol. 26 no. 3, pp. 1–6.
Grey A. (1999). "A Vision for Quality in Early Childhood Education". Proceedings of the Seventh Early Childhood Convention, vol. 2. Nelson: New Zealand.
Hirini, P. (1997). "He Whakaaro mo te Aria Whānaungatanga: He Ata Rapu: Towards an Understanding of Whanaungatanga". He Pukenga Kōrero, vol. 2 no. 2 (Autumn), p. 44.
Hopkins, D. (2001). "School Improvement for Real". In Educational Change and Development, ed. A. Hargreaves. New York: Routledge Falmer.
Learned, E.P., Christiansen, C.R., Andrews, K., and Guth, W.D. (1969). Business Policy, Text and Cases. Homewood, IL: Irwin.
Luft, J. (1969). Of Human Interaction. Palo Alto, CA: National Press.
Malaguzzi, L. (1998). "History, Ideas and Basic Philosophy: An Interview with Lella Gandini". In The Hundred Languages of Children: The Reggio Emilio Approach - Advanced Reflections, 2nd ed., ed. C. Edwards, L. Gandini, and G. Forman. Greenwich, Conn.: Ablex.
McMillan, B. and Meade, A. (1986). "Observation: The Basic Techniques". Early Childhood Folio 2. Wellington: NZCER.
Ministry of Education (1996). Te Whāriki: He Whāriki Mātauranga mō ngā Mokopuna o Aotearoa/Early Childhood Curriculum(external link).
Ministry of Education (2004). Professional Standards for Kindergarten Teachers. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
Ministry of Education (2004 and 2005). Kei Tua o te Pae/Assessment for Learning: Early Childhood Exemplars.
Puketapu-Hetet, E. (1999). Māori Weaving. Auckland: Addison Wesley Longman.
Quicke, J. (2000). "A New Professionalism for a Collaborative Culture of Organizational Learning in Contemporary Society". Educational Management and Administration, vol. 28 no. 3, pp. 299–315.
Rogoff, B. (2003). The Cultural Nature of Human Development. New York: Oxford University Press.
Schön, D. A. (1983). The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Thomas, G. (2004). "Introduction: Evidence and Practice". In Evidence-Based Practice in Education, ed. G. Thomas and R. Pring. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Walker, R. (2003). "Bicultural Dreaming: In the Eye of the Beholder". Keynote address to the 8th Early Childhood Convention, Palmerston North, 22–25 September.
The Ministry of Education wishes to thank:
- the weavers, Mary Ama and the late Erenora Puketapu-Hetet, who contributed their advice and enthusiasm to the development of the weaving metaphor
- Rita and Tony Walker, who developed the whakatauākī in this document, for their wisdom over the duration of the project
members of the Advisory Working Group, Liz Depree, Anne Grey, Barbara Jeanette Jordan, Cheryl Rau, Brenda Soutar, Anne Thomas, and Deborah Wansbrough, who shaped many of the ideas that are presented in this document
- the early writing team, Sala Edna Falato'ese, Diane Mara, Rita Walker, Alison Stephenson, and Di Davies, who provided a rich cultural lens to the work
- the academics, Lyn Foote and Joce Nuttall, who critiqued the document through its various phases
- the early childhood education services that contributed their review insights and experiences to this document through the trial process. They include:
- Akaiti Mangarongaro Punanga Reo
- KidStart Taranaki/Wanganui
- Best Years Childcare, Upper Hutt
- Southland Kindergarten Association
- Dunedin Rudolf Steiner Kindergarten
- Wa Ora Montessori School
- Matiti Tokelau Akoga Kamata
- Play and Learn Early Education Centres
- Southbridge Playcentre
- Kiddz Home Based Early Childhood Education Service
- Don Buck Kindergarten of the Auckland Kindergarten Association
- Papamoa Kindergarten of the Tauranga Regional Free
- Kindergarten Association
- Dunedin Hospital Early Childhood Centre
- Aubert Child Care Centre
- all the services that contributed feedback that helped shape this document.
The Early Childhood Education Self-review project team, Ministry of Education: Sandra Collins, Pat Davey, and Jayne White.
Editor: Margaret Cahill
Designers: Liz Tui Morris and Penelope Newman
The Ministry of Education would like to thank Mason Durie for permission to include material from his capacity framework.
Text, design, front cover artwork and photographs are copyright © The Crown 2006 except the following photographs:
- le toga, which is reproduced with the permission of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (1.012707)
- papa laufala, which is reproduced with the permission of Liki Tino/Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (1.002944)
- the photograph under 'Governance and management practice', which is by Honoria Skinner copyright © Honoria Skinner 2006
- the photograph of three kete under 'Some questions to think about', which is by Mark Strange and reproduced with the permission of the Puketapu-Hetet family
- the photographs in the home-based service example, which are by Lei-Anne Bashir-Elahi copyright © Lei-Anne Bashir-Elahi 2006
- the photograph of the fish mosaic, which is by Julie Sullivan copyright © Julie Sullivan 2006.