Ka Ora, Ka Ako | healthy school lunches programme FAQs

Ka Ora, Ka Ako | healthy school lunches programme aims to reduce food insecurity by providing access to a nutritious lunch in school every day. The FAQs below provide more information.

How many schools and ākonga will benefit from the school lunch programme?

By March 2021, over eight million lunches have been served in 542 schools and kura to over 132,600 learners.

  • 42 schools (around 10,000 students) across Bay of Plenty/Waiariki and Hawke’s Bay/Tairāwhiti were the first to take part in Term 1 2020
  • 18 schools (over 3,000 students) across Otago and Southland joined Ka Ora, Ka Ako in Terms 2 and 3, 2020
  • 121 schools (around 30,370 students) in Bay of Plenty/Waiariki and Hawke’s Bay/Tairāwhiti began in Term 4 2020
  • 322 schools (88,000 students) across the rest of the country began from the start of Term 1 2021
  • 329 schools (68,150 students) will start during Terms 1 and 2, 2021
  • 131 schools (15,480 students) are being invited during March 2021, including specialist schools, activity centres and teen parent units. Schools that choose to join the programme will start lunches from Term 3 2021.

By the end of 2021, 963 schools and kura will provide lunches to around 25 percent (215,000) of learners.

How will the programme be implemented?

The programme is being implemented in phases. This allows us to learn as much as we can about providing lunches in different school types, locations and facilities as the programme rolls out.

What’s the outcome we want for ākonga and whānau?

Ka Ora, Ka Ako aims to reduce food insecurity amongst New Zealand children by providing access to a nutritious lunch every day. Research indicates that reducing food insecurity:

  • improves wellbeing
  • supports child development and learning
  • improves learners’ levels of concentration, behaviour and school achievement
  • reduces financial hardship amongst families
  • addresses barriers to children’s participation in education and promotes attendance at school
  • boosts learners’ overall health.

We want to see improved engagement, learning and behaviour, fewer children having little or nothing to eat for lunch, and reduced financial hardship amongst the families of participating students.

What does Ka Ora, Ka Ako mean?

Ka Ora, Ka Ako is about being healthy and well in order to be in a good place to learn. The name was developed in consultation with the Ministry’s Te Ao Māori group.

How was the programme designed?

We considered a range of overseas models for providing free school lunches, including from the United Kingdom and Sweden. We opted for one that better reflects how our children prefer to eat lunch, and how our school system works. In the first stages of the initiative we have been testing different approaches, so we can adapt and refine as we go. 

The programme is responding to various calls we have heard over recent years for a government-funded school lunch programme. Our online education conversation, Kōrero Mātauranga, told us that many people saw child poverty and child hunger as a key barrier to educational success.

Not every student in a school may need a free lunch, so why is lunch provided on a universal basis in schools? 

Providing lunch on a universal basis minimises any stigma associated with food insecurity – everyone receives a lunch and there is no need to single out those who need it more than others. 

Programmes that target on the basis of individual need also require a process to confirm eligibility. This can add costs and complexity and discourage eligible families from taking part, meaning that some children who need lunch willl miss out. While we know there are hungry children in every community, we do not always know who they are. A universal approach within schools means we do not need to.

Are lunches compulsory? 

Schools and kura decide whether to offer food to students and how this is done. The programme is not compulsory. Where a school decides not to accept an invitation to the programme, there is an opportunity to invite another school instead. 

Lunches will be available to all Year 1-13 students in participating schools. Sharing kai can be an important way of fostering a sense of belonging. Students will be encouraged to eat the lunch provided, however no one will be compelled to. Parents wanting to provide their children with their own lunch can continue to do so.

How does expanding the programme support the response to and recovery from COVID-19 pandemic?

The expanded programme is funded through the COVID-19 Response and Recovery Fund. Expanding the programme to around 215,000 students will help cushion students in more vulnerable disadvantaged households against the economic consequences of COVID-19. It ensures that students receive a daily lunch which eases the pressure on families and whānau.

Will the scheme create local job opportunities?

The expanded programme is also expected to support job creation and economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. By March 2021, some 942 jobs had already been generated by the programme and it is estimated that around 2,000 jobs will be created by the end of 2021.

From July 2020, new suppliers and schools making their own lunches will be required to pay those staff predominantly and directly working on school lunches at least $22.10 per hour as part of their contract.

How are schools and kura selected to take part?

Ka Ora, Ka Ako is offered to schools and kura that fall within the highest 25 percent of socio-economic disadvantage nationally and where students face the greatest barriers that can affect access to education, wellbeing and achievement. 

A range of factors that could affect access to education, wellbeing and achievement are considered when selecting schools and kura to take part in the school lunches programme. This includes community characteristics and variables prevalent in children’s lives such as family circumstances, income and number of school changes. School deciles are not used as a measure of need.

For the first phases of the initiative, a mix of schools and kura in urban, rural and isolated locations, with different roll sizes and with a variety of relationships to existing food programmes were invited. This was to ensure we learn as much as possible about providing lunches in different school types, locations and facilities. 

Schools and kura are invited to join Ka Ora, Ka Ako. There is no application process for schools to follow.

How do you define need?

The main tool used to determine which schools should be eligible is the Equity Index, developed by the Ministry to replace the school decile system. The Equity Index estimates the extent to which each child grows up in socioeconomically disadvantaged circumstances that we know to be associated with their likelihood of achieving in education. The index looks at a full basket of factors in a child’s life, not any one factor, to understand the socioeconomic barriers present in a school’s community. For example, family circumstances, income, number of home and school changes, and more.

More information can be found here: Education Funding System Review – Education in New Zealand(external link).

Have any schools opted not to take part in the programme and what were their reasons?

Schools and kura decide whether to offer food to students and how this is done. Some schools and kura have declined the invitation to take part. There are a variety of reasons including a preference to continue with an existing food provision. Schools do not have to provide an explanation for declining an invititation to take part. 

Why aren’t free school lunches provided to students at all schools and kura? 

The funding we have available enables us to cover approximately 215,000 students in these schools. We know there are a lot learners who would benefit, but available funding means that not all schools will be offered the programme. To include schools that don’t meet the parameters would mean other more disadvantaged students would miss out.

What is the role of Boards of Trustees?

We expect Boards of Trustees to be closely involved in decisions about whether and how to deliver the school lunch programme eg whether the school makes their own lunches or outsources to a supplier, and decisions on staff training and kitchen spaces.

What are the different ways schools and kura can provide lunches?

Schools and kura are best placed to decide how they want to deliver lunches, and what the priorities are for their school and community. Schools will have a choice about how lunches are provided at their school. There are a range of different options. 

A single school or kura might:

  • choose to make all their own lunches
  • outsource to an external supplier that prepares lunches at the school or prepares lunches offsite and delivers to the school
  • make their own lunches on set days of the week and use a supplier on other days – in this case schools will follow both processes for providing their own lunches and selecting a supplier.
  • outsource to different suppliers for set days of the week.

A group of schools and kura might come together and outsource to a single larger supplier under one contract managed by the Ministry.

How many schools are providing their own lunches and what does this involve?

Currently around 131 schools and kura have decided to make their own lunches. These schools have operational responsibilities for the lunch process, including health and nutrition, dietary and religious requirements, food safety and waste management. They will need access to a kitchen which has been approved by the Ministry of Primary Industries, has enough capacity to make lunches for all students, and has appropriate preparation and storage facilities. 

Boards of Trustees will determine the training needs of school staff depending on the way they decide to provide school lunches. The Ministry will broker appropriate support if required. 

How do schools select their suppliers? Is there a tender process?

Suppliers are selected through a tender process. Schools and kura select from a panel of approved suppliers that meet minimum standards of food hygiene, waste management and food preparation. This will simplify the procurement process for schools.

Any supplier can register on the Government Electronic Tendering System(external link) (GETS) and go through a similar procurement process to an “all of government” contract model.

What requirements will suppliers need to meet?

As part of the open tender process, the Ministry will want to ensure that selected suppliers:

  • have the capability and capacity to deliver to a large number of students
  • meet all Food Act 2014 requirements and have had a good food safety track record  
  • understand the Ministry of Health nutritional requirements 
  • understand the local, regional and community aspects of their area of interest 
  • consider sustainable solutions to minimise waste.

Who will pay suppliers and manage day-to-day delivery of lunches to schools?

The Ministry will have direct contractual relationships with suppliers so that schools will not have to worry about invoicing, payments or any financial risks. We can also monitor the quality of food and service, ensure legislative requirements are met, and that any issues escalted by schools can be managed them in a timely manner.

Schools and kura will still have the operational day-to-day relationship with their supplier so they can make decisions that are right for their students, eg adapt menus, update student numbers, and agree delivery times and requirements.

What is the cost of each lunch?

The programme is costed at a maximum ‘per child, per day’ cost of $5 for Years 1-8 students, and $7 for students in Years 9+ to reflect the larger portions required for older students. 

This amount covers food and preparation. This excludes GST. The amount is based on information from existing commercial and charitable lunch programmes in New Zealand, and overseas examples of school food programmes. 

The exact figure per child per day will depend on the how each school decides to deliver school lunches. Funds for each term will be adjusted for updated school rolls and actual spend.

The costs of delivering lunches to schools will be included in the evaluation of the programme.

Is this really new? Aren’t some schools simply extending what they already do to provide food for students?

The programme provides an opportunity for schools to provide a daily, government-funded, school lunch to their students. For many schools this is the first time they will be providing a lunch every day.

Schools have been invited to take part regardless of whether they already provide food through other initiatives. Some schools may wish to adapt or extend what they already do. Other initiatives may serve a different need, for example breakfast programmes or initiatives providing a healthy snack.

What staffing will schools need to provide to implement the programme?

Staffing will vary depending on a school’s size and how they decide to deliver the lunch programme.

When does the evaluation of the programme begin and what is being evaluated?

Selected schools and kura in three regions – Hawke’s Bay/Tairāwhiti, Bay of Plenty/Waiariki and Otago/Southland – are taking part in an evaluation of the programme so that any future decisions are evidence-based. The evaluation commenced with the start of the implementation in Term 1 2020.

The evaluation looks at both implementation in terms of cost-effectiveness and efficiency of the delivery model, and whether the programme has made a significant difference to food security, wellbeing and attendance at school. Evaluation will include collecting information from students, school leaders and suppliers on the operation and delivery of the programme.

What will be in the free school lunches? What arrangements have been put in place to ensure the lunches are healthy and nutritious?

Lunches must be healthy and nutritious, based on the Ka Ora, Ka Ako nutrition guidelines [PDF, 840 KB] and the Ministry of Health’s healthy food and drink guidance for schools(external link). This includes offering foods from the four main food groups – vegetables and fruit, breads and cereals, milk and milk products, and lean meat, chicken, seafood, eggs, legumes, nuts and seeds.

There is no set lunch menu for the programme. Schools and suppliers decide what works best for them, what is provided and how. The content of the lunches will depend on a number of factors such as the chosen supplier, any catering facilities the school has, the number of students, and a school’s distance from their supplier.

A typical weekly menu includes a variety of lunches such as wraps, vegetable sticks, dips, salads, soups, and hot lunches. Menus may also change to reflect available fresh produce and the season, and feedback from schools and students.

Guidelines on health and nutrition, dietary and religious requirements will need to be met by all suppliers and schools making their own lunches.

What health and safety considerations are schools addressing as part of the programme?

Where schools and kura have decided to outsource to external suppliers, meeting health and safety legislation is a contractual requirement.

Schools and kura that provide their own lunches are responsible for any employment and training requirements. Staff processing food must comply with Food Act 2014 and be aware of allergies and allergens.

We have worked closely with the Ministry for Primary Industries to ensure standards for food safety and hygiene are met and to provide schools with appropriate guidance and support. This includes developing a Food Control Plan for the school lunches programme [PDF, 2.2 MB].

How will schools reduce and manage food waste?

Schools providing their own lunches are encouraged to move towards a zero-waste policy. The Ministry of Education guidelines require schools to reduce food wastage through menu planning, stock management, and use of leftovers if it can be done safely. Schools need a plan to deal with food wastage, eg composting, and are encouraged to minimise packaging and reduce the use of plastic food wrap and single use cutlery and tableware. Suppliers are also asked to consider solutions to minimise waste as part of the tender process.

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