Te whatu pōkeka (Māori)
'Te Whatu Pōkeka: Kaupapa Assessment for Learning Māori: Early Childhood Exemplars' were developed to provide a resource based on a kaupapa Māori perspective and context. The focus of the resource is the assessment of Māori children in Māori early childhood settings.
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Wāhanga Tuarua: Te Kōhanga Reo o Ngā Kuaka
Te Kōhanga Reo o Ngā Kuaka derives its name from discussions held with the university’s Māori Department in 1989. In previous years there had been a Māori student group called Ngā Kuaka Marangaranga. They called themselves this because of the way students, like the kuaka or godwit, come to feed, in this case on knowledge, and then leave on their journey. The name was appropriate for the kōhanga reo because like their namesakes, the tamariki come to kōhanga, feed and grow on the knowledge within, and then continue on their journey. Like the kuaka, they keep returning, bringing with them their teina, akuanei pea, a rātou mokopuna.
The journey for te whānau o Te Kōhanga Reo o Ngā Kuaka has been a practical one that continues to move and shape itself. Our journey has taken an uncharted path with no organised order or prescribed map. Rather, a layering of collective wisdom and interactions have worked as a process through which we have explored tā mātou reo me ōna tikanga through kaupapa Māori assessment. Te whānau o Te Kōhanga o Ngā Kuaka is pan-tribal and sits under the umbrella of Tainui. Th e ethos of our whānau is driven by the desire and the determination to educate and manaaki our tamariki within te ao Māori. Without realising the framework that would later emerge, and the connection to our whānau within a pan-tribal setting, we would discover how an idea can create a context with the potential to nurture the importance of whakapapa for every member within the whānau.
Our views on assessment
We began our journey with the invitation into the unknown, to participate in the Kaupapa Māori Learning and Assessment Exemplar Project. Initially we had no clear vision for a framework for our work. However, by asking ourselves a range of questions, our ideas began to gather momentum and energy, and opened unlimited possibilities. Moving between the unknown to moments of clarity, we found ourselves exploring our own understanding of assessment. We discussed current forms of assessments that staff had found useful. We wondered what our participation would look like, asking ourselves what we wanted to gain from this project, how it might support our whānau, and what it would look like in practice.
Exploring culturally preferred assessment tools offered multiple entries from which whānau could work in terms of teaching and learning. The prior knowledge of the whānau and the knowledge of the children could be integrated so that together they were able to become a community of collective learners.
Exploring the notion of whakapapa illuminated for us that whakapapa is far more than a connection to people through genealogy. Equally important is that children’s learning connects with their experiences, knowledge, skills, and attributes. In an assessment framework whakapapa is where past learning connects to learning in the present, which continues to grow and evolve into the future. Whakapapa is not bound by time or place. In this view, learning is life long and assessment does not necessarily focus on a single episode in the child’s life. Instead it views the child’s experiences holistically. The role of assessment within this framework is to enhance the ira tangata of the child through the lens of a philosophical and pedagogical construct that is kaupapa Māori.
Strengthening the connection between whakapapa and assessment is the role of whanaungatanga. Te Whānau o Ngā Kuaka acknowledges that everyone in the community has a valued contribution to make to the lives of the tamariki. The community is whanaungatanga.
- Marutuahu Skipper
I tētahi rā, i waho mātou, ā, ka kite au i a Maru e hīkoi ana ki te taha o ngā kaiako e ngaki māra ana. Ka haere a Maru ki te kimi hoto, ā, ka tīmata ia ki te kohi i ngā paru ki tōna hoto. Ka karanga atu au ki a ia, me te pātai, “Maru, kei hea ō kamupūtu?” Kāore he whakautu. Ka mahi tonu ia i āna mahi.
Ka tīmata ia ki te pana i te hoto, ā, ka rongo i te oro o te hoto e tuki ana i te papa. Ki ahau, he pai te tangi ki a ia, nā te mea, ka haere tonu ia me tōna hoto ki tētahi atu wāhi. Kua huri ōna whakaaro mai i te māra ki te hoto.
I te tīmatanga, ka piki whakamuri a Maru ki runga i tōna waka. Engari, ka huri whakamua ia kia tika tōna noho. Ko ōna waewae i whakahaere i te waka. Ahakoa paku noa iho te haere o te waka, ka haere tonu. Nā reira ka haere tōna waka mō te wā roa.
E pau ana te hau o Maru, ka toro tōna ringa ki ētahi tamariki ki te āwhina i a ia. Ka haere atu ētahi o ngā tuakana ki te āwhina i a ia. Ka rongo au i a M.W. e kōrero ana, “Tino taumaha koe, Maru.” Me te kōrero o H.C. “Āe, tino taumaha koe Maru.” Nā M.W. i hiki i a Maru mai te waka.
Ahakoa kāore ahau i rongo i ngā kōrero i waenganui i a M.W. rāua ko Maru, te āhua nei he kōrero pai. Ko te mea pai o tēnei āhuatanga, ko te haere ngātahi a te tuakana me te teina, ā, te manaaki o te tuakana i te teina.
Kei te whakaatu mai a Marutuahu i te aha?
Kei a Maru te hiringa ki te mahi i āna mahi. Ā, ki ahau nei, kei te piki tōna māiatanga ki ana mahi tākaro i roto, i waho hoki i te whare.
Āe, pukumahi ia i waenganui i āna mahi tākaro, ahakoa tēhea takaro, tēhea mahi kei a ia tēnei horomata.
Mō ētahi mahi kei a Maru tēnei horomata pēra i te eke waka me te tākaro.
Pērāki te noho ki te tūru, te tākaro, me te mahi māra. Āe, kei a Maru tēnei āhuatanga hoki.
He ngakaunui tō Maru. Tērā pea, koirā te take, ka āwhina, ka manaaki ngā tamariki i a ia.
Ka ahu ki hea? Me pēhea ahau e tautoko i tōna whanaketanga?
Te eke waka
Tērā pea me whakaaro mātou ngā kaiako, ki te whakarite he wāhi mō Maru ki te pana i tōna waka. Me whakarite mātou ngā kaiako i ētahi atu waka rerekē māna hei tautoko i a ia.
Tērā pea, ina ka whakapakari ngā pūkenga ā-tinana o Maru, ka pakari ake ia ki te mahi i āna mahi, pērā ki te heke tūru, heke waka rānei.
Whakaako kupu hōu
Ka tīmata ia ki te whakaputa i ngā kupu o Maru kia ahei ia ki te karanga mō te āwhina, kia āhei ia ki te whakaingoa i ngā taonga pai ki a ia.
Kia tautoko tonu ngā kaiako i ngā pūkenga katoa o Maru kia puāwai, kia tipu pai ia.
Te Kōhanga Reo o Ngā Kuaka
Kei te haere tonu ngā whāinga o Marutuahu. Ahakoa kua tutuki ētahi ō ana whāinga, kei te tipu tonu ia. Kua rongo ahau ki ētahi kupu, pērāi te kupu ‘māmā’. Ka whakamahia e ia te kupu ‘māmā’ mō te ‘homai’ me te ‘whaea’. Kua tīmata a Maru ki te titiro ki ngā pukapuka. I tēnei wā, kei te pānui pukapuka mātou ki a ia, ā, kei te titiro ia ki ngā pikitia noa iho. Kei te pai tēnā. He tīmatanga tēnā. Kua mauria mai ngā waka ki roto i te whare, kia pakari a Maru ki te eke, ki te heke anō hoki i te waka. Ā, kua whai wā ia ki te whakapakari i ōna waewae ki te whakahaere i te waka. Ka puta atu mātou ki waho, ka haere tōtika a Maru ki ngā pahikara nui, i nāianei. Heoi anō, he wero hōu anō tāna i tēnei wā. Nā reira, kei te āta titiro mātou ki a ia me tēnei wero hōu. Kia kaha e Maru!
Kei te akiaki mātou i a Maru ingā wā katoa. Nā tōna tino haututū, nā tōna tino whakamatemate, ka puta mai ētahi painga hōu. Nō reira, kei te kite mātou, i te tipuranga me te whanaketanga o tēnei tamaiti.Te āhua nei, kei te pai haere. Ki ahau nei kāre e kōre ka puta mai ētahi pūrākau hōu mō Maru.
Ngā hononga ki te tauparapara: Ways of knowing
Marutuahu has an existing whakapapa that encompasses a collection of knowledge and experiences from which to launch his learning within this place of whakapapa (Mōhiotanga). Through whanaungatanga, Marutuahu and others are able to contribute to each other’s interest in creating and sustaining a context for learning and forming new ideas (Mātauranga). Marutuahu’s whakapapa of learning is strengthened and extended as his experiences are layered during a time of growth and new ideas. Marutuahu can think about and explore multiple ways of working out his relationships and behaviour with people and things. In these examples, it is clear that the role of ako-nga through whanaungatanga (manaakitanga, tatari, titiro, tohatoha) acts as an interconnecting process for Marutuahu’s discovering ways of knowing and acquiring new knowledge (Māramatanga).
Ngā āhuatanga o te tamaiti: Ways of being
The first example captures Marutuahu’s interest in and his familiarity with an apparatus.Because the exercise is repeated a number of times, Marutuahu can anticipate what happens, allowing him to catch the ball in mid-flight.
The second example captures Marutuahu trying to sit on a truck. He uses his body to figure out how to get onto the truck. Eventually, he turns around and sits on the truck. He communicates to his friends by holding his hand out to ask them to come and help him get off. Through a process of kōrero, awhi, aroha, and mahitahi, Marutuahu gets off and continues his day of exploration.
These examples of Marutuahu’s learning indicate that the whakapapa of one’s identity is much more than the connection between people. It identifies the image of Marutuahu as being one of formation and growth through his mana of potential. This image of Marutuahu illustrates the interconnections of each exemplar, working together at separate times and places, towards supporting and nurturing his totality, his mana, tapu and ira tangata of being. His actions show how he uses past knowledge to problem-solve and to develop his understanding.
Tikanga whakaako: Ways of doing
These learning examples show that the adults make no attempt to interrupt Marutuahu. Rather, they observe, acknowledge, and celebrate his endeavours with other children, acknowledging that the children are facilitating each other’s learning.
He hononga ki Te Whāriki
Whakamana - Empowerment
Ka aro te taha whakamana ki te mana o ia tamaiti me tō rātou kaha tautoko i ngā taha katoa a tēnā, a tēnā. He wāhanga nui ngā akoranga ā-hapori, ā-ahurea ki te whanaungatanga (Ngā hononga), ki ngā tamariki kia noho ngātahi ki ngā reanga whakatipu ki roto i tētahi kaupapa e tuia herenga tangata, herenga ātea kia kotahi mai.
Whakamana acknowledges the power of each child as an active participant in her/his own learning. Children’s relationships (ngā hononga) are dependent on their social and cultural learning which supports them by providing connections with their past, with their community, and with the outside world.
- Tōku whānau
Kia ora. Ko Ngārewarewa Tata tōku ingoa. Ko Jeanne Kerr tōku māmā. Ko Warren Tata tōku pāpā.
Kei te tākaro pāoro a Ngārewarewa. Titiro! He rerekē te āhua o tēnei pāoro. He koi kei tēnei pāoro. Ka taea a Ngārewarewa te whiu i te pāoro. Ka taea e ia te whana i te pāoro. Ka taea e ia te hopu i te pāoro. Ka rawe nē!
Kei te whakaatu mai a Ngārewarewa i te aha?
Ki ahau nei, kua pakari haere ōna pūkenga ā-tinana.
Kua piki tōna maia.
He ū tonu tangata tāna.
E kore ia e hoki noa i te wae tutuki, kia pā anō te upoko pakaru.
Ka ahu ki hea? Me pēhea ahau e tautoko i tōna whanaketanga?
Ko tāku e hiahia nei, ki te whakaatu i ngā mahi rerekē kia pakari ā-tinana a Ngārewarewa.
Pekepeke: Kia peke ia mai tētahi wāhi ki tētahi atu wāhi.
Ara ārai: Kia māia ia ki te hīkoi ki runga i te ara ārai.
Rauemi: Kia rerekē ngā āhuatanga, ngā rahi hoki o ngā pāoro, me ngā porowhita.
Kua ea a Ngārewarewa ki ōna whāinga ako. I āhei mātou ngā kaiako ki te tautoko i ōna whāinga ako. I puta atu mātou ki waho i ngā wa i whiti mai a Tama-nui-te-rā. Koinei te wāhi pai māna ki te whakapakari i tōna tinana i te ara ārai. Koinei hoki te wāhi i taea e ia te tākaro i ngā pāoro nui, ngā pāoro iti, ngā pāoro rerekē. I tētahi rā, i tarai ia ki te whiu i te pāoro ki roto i te neti o te pou poitūkohu. I a ia te hiringa ki te whiwhi piro, engari, mā te wā! I te wā i hikoi ia ki runga i ngā papa rākau o te ara ārai, kāore ia e hiahia te awhi. Heoi anō, nānā anō te māia, ki te hīkoi ko ia anake. Ahakoa i muri ahau i a ia, kāore ia i tiro whakamuri. I hikoi tītika ia ki te mutunga o te ara. Nō reira Ngārewarewa, kua ohorere ahau ki tō kaha, tō māia, me tō hiringa ki te tutuki pai i āu mahi. Mauri ora ki a koe!
Ways of knowing – learning
Ngārewarewa has an existing whakapapa that encompasses a collection of knowledge and experiences from which to launch her learning within this place of whakapapa (Mōhiotanga). In this exemplar, Ngārewarewa combines both gross and fine motor skills to catch and throw the ball (Mātauranga). Using her physical and cognitive skills, Ngārewarewa co- ordinates and works with her senses to strengthen her balance, hand-eye co-ordination, and upper and lower body strength (Māramatanga).
Ways of being – the image of the child
This exemplar captures Ngārewarewa’s interest in the outdoor environment and in the equipment that ignites her curiosity and excitement and gives her pleasure. Ngārewarewa’s confidence can be seen to be developing through her play. Her perseverance and diligence are illustrated throughout this exemplar.
Ngārewarewa is expressing and illuminating the continuation of her ira tangata. Her interests and actions indicate how both past and present experiences can shape, and be built upon to support and nurture, her mana of potential.
Ways of doing – adults’ role
This exemplar shows that the adults do not attempt to interrupt Ngārewarewa. Rather, they observe, acknowledge, and celebrate her interests.
He hononga ki Te Whāriki
Ka whakaatu e te whakapapa whai mātauranga i ngā ‘holistic way children learn and grow’ (Te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga, 1996, Page 14) me te horopaki whānui hei tīmatanga mō tētahi ki te rapu māramatanga mō tōna ao.
The notion of whakapapa in relation to a child’s development of new-found knowledge indicates the ‘holistic way children learn and grow’ (Ministry of Education, 1996, page 14). It also indicates the holistic (Whakamana) context through which a child begins to understand and make sense of her world (Whānau Tangata).